World Thalassemia Day 2022: Every year on this day (May 8) ‘World Thalassemia Day’ is celebrated. Every year it is celebrated under a special theme. This year’s theme is ‘Be aware, share, care’. Even today most people are not aware about Thalassemia disease, so this day is celebrated every year to make people aware about it. There are two types of Thalassemia, Minor and Major Thalassemia. How this disease comes to children through parents, what are the symptoms of thalassemia, how it is possible to treat it, let us know from the experts.
What is Thalassemia disease
Dr. Prantar Chakraborty, Consultant-Hematology, Fortis Hospital (Kolkata) It is said that Thalassemia is a genetic disease, which is passed on to the child through the parents. If both the parents are carriers of Thalassemia, then the child may have this Thalassemia disease. If one of the parents is a carrier, then the child will also be a carrier, but will not have Thalassemia disease. In this disease, blood is not formed properly. This is because there is some problem in the genetic code of making hemoglobin. Defects mainly occur in the code. A carrier is the one in whose genes the trait or tendency to thalassemia is found. Carrier is also called Thalassemia minor. Career children can overcome this. People with Thalassemia carriers are generally healthy and have mild anemia. If the special test is not done, then the person will not even know that he is a Thalassemia carrier.
When does Thalassemia disease occur?
Dr. Prantar Chakraborty says that if both the parents are carriers, then there is a 25 percent chance of their child getting Thalassemia disease. Those who have this disease, they are kept alive through blood transfusion. Too much iron accumulates in the body of such a person, which has to be taken out by giving medicine. If the blood will not be safe, then they also have an increased risk of getting hepatitis B, C, HIV. Having too much iron in the body can also cause problems in many types of liver, heart etc. In such a situation, by just donating blood, the chances of survival of a person after 25-30 years are also reduced.
Symptoms of Thalassemia
Dr. Prantar explains that usually this disease is not detected at the time of birth. After six months, when the child looks very tired and lethargic, does not eat properly, is unable to play, skin and eyes appear yellow, then definitely take it to the doctor. Apart from this, the following symptoms can also be seen-
- children’s tongue and nails
- stunted growth
- look younger
- dry face
- weight loss
- feeling weak
Thalassemia Test, Diagnosis, Treatment
Dr. Prantar explains that there are more cases of Thalassemia in many states of the country like East, West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Gujarat, Punjab. In such a situation, the people here should know what tests, treatments are done. For this it is necessary that career screen test should be done. If a person knows that he is a Thalassemia carrier, then he should not marry any other carrier. If you want to marry only by career, then get prenatal diagnosis done in 10-12th week during pregnancy. This is necessary because both the parents are carriers, then there is a 25% chance of thalassemia disease in the child, otherwise it will be either a carrier or a normal child. Accordingly, if the fetus is diagnosed with Thalassemia disease, then according to Indian law, it has the right to terminate it. It is completely legal, that is why prenatal diagnosis also came, which people use wrongly today.
Stem cell transplant is the only treatment option. Apart from this, there is also the option of gene therapy, but it is not available in India as it is very expensive. In this, the correction of genes is done through therapy. Medicines are given to remove iron deposits. By staying in the regular follow-up of the doctor, one can lead a normal life.
If you do a complete blood count test there, then it will be known, as well as the doctor does the examination by hand, because both liver and spleen get bigger. This happens because the body does not make blood properly. In such a situation, the liver and spleen work more so that the blood is formed properly. In such a situation, treatment should be started immediately after diagnosis, so that later the problem does not become serious.
FIRST PUBLISHED : May 08, 2022, 06:00 IST